Major Cluster Standards

Represent
and solve problems involving multiplication and division.

3.OA.A.1

Interpret
products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of
objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For
example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be
expressed as 5×7.

3.OA.A.2

Interpret wholenumber quotients of whole numbers, e.g.,
interpret 56 ÷8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are
partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects
are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe context in which a number of shares or a
number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.

3.OA.A.3

Use
multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems situations
involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using
drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent
the problem.

3.OA.A.4

Determine
the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating
three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that
makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = □ ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?

Understand properties of multiplication and the
relationship between multiplication and division.

3.OA.B.5

Apply
properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. Examples:
If 6 × 4 = 24 is known,
then 4 × 6 = 24 is also
known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 ×
2
can be found by 3× 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of
multiplication.) Knowing that 8 ×
5
= 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can
find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive
property.)

3.OA.B.6

Understand
division as an unknownfactor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by
finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.

Multiply and
Divide within 100

3.OA.C.7

Fluently
multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship
between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one
knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know
from memory all products of two onedigit numbers.

Solve problems involving the four operations, and
identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.

3.OA.D.8

Solve
twostep word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems
using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the
reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation
strategies including rounding.

3.OA.D.9

Identify
arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or
multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations.
